Yes, teachers can provide classroom instruction about Christianity and the Bible in a way that meets state academic standards and related curriculum requirements, especially when doing lessons about history, culture or literature. (Many schools require student clubs to have a sponsor.) Inclusion of study about religion is important in order for students to be properly educated about his-tory and cultures. Students' Rights Information Sheet: Religion and Religious Practice This information sheet outlines students' rights to be free from Teaching about Religion in Public Schools Published online in TASB School Law eSource Perhaps no aspect of public school instruction has been subjected to more public and judicial scrutiny than instruction concerning or in conflict with the religious faith and practices of students and their parents. More than 200 years after their enactment, the first 16 words of the Bill of Rights … of the City of Saginaw, 452 F. Supp. In any case, a reasoned essay is a great way to express your point of view and substantiate it, as well as analyze the issue from a different angle. Phone: (615) 244-2495 Adults, on the other hand, are much more limited since they are government employees. Students' Rights Information Sheet: Religion and Religious Practice This information sheet outlines students' rights to be free from While the entire document may be downloaded, Chapter 6, A Teachers Guide to Religion in the Public Schools, gives a most pragmatic overview of how religious instruction can be constitutionally instituted. 3. Talia Berk, a student in Mr. Clark's class, was interested in the passage about the first settlers and asked how the religious beliefs and practices of these settlers compared with those of the Native American Indians. Schools may neither promote nor denigrate any religion. They also discuss the thorny question of whether public school teachers should even be talking about religion at all. The following nine guidelines are drawn from court cases and other legal resources on teaching religion in the public schools. In the 1960s’ school prayer cases (that prompted rulings against state-sponsored school prayer and Bible reading), the U.S. Supreme Court indicated that public school education may include teaching about religion. But when it comes to promotional efforts like putting up posters or making announcements, all of those efforts should be initiated and led by students. After state-led prayer in public school was banned, many instances where religion and government intersect have arisen, resulting in a variety of court cases but also in an unclear set of guidelines for teachers, administrators, and students to follow. Cushman served for several years … Read Finn has served for 32 years in the public school as a teacher, counselor, principal, and superintendent. . Even though the U.S. Supreme Court has long made clear that the Constitution prohibits public school-sponsored prayer or religious indoctrination, violations remain rampant in many To give a few examples: So what does all this mean for teachers? Did you know that some state academic standards actually encourage instruction about Christianity? denied, 132 S. Ct. 1807 (2012); Busch v. Marple Newtown School District, 567 F.3d 89. A teacher can also show support by volunteering to serve as a faculty sponsor for student-led Christian clubs. 2011), cert. This is a common and realistic concern. Because of this, teachers in public schools tend to teach a diverse population of students in terms of race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, levels of need, and more. Indeed, educators are able to exercise considerable control over "student expression to assure that participants learn whatever lessons the activity is designed to teach, that readers or listeners are not exposed to material that may be inappropriate for their level of maturity, and that the views of the individual speaker are not erroneously attributed to the school."16. Unfortunately, though, when you look at how cases have played out in court, the answer seems to differ according to the facts in each individual case. 3 See Doe v. Paul Dee Human, 725 F. Supp. 1503 (W.D. A “fast facts” sheet explaining students’ rights is available in the. 5 Gibson v. Lee County School Board, 1 F. Supp. Such role can only be developed after studying religion and hence developing an interest in the career. 1993); see also Busch v. Marple Newtown School District, 567 F.3d 89 (3rd Cir. I want to encourage Christian educators in public schools: You are likely having far more of an impact than you realize, as demonstrated by multiple Focus on the Family listeners who shared their stories on our broadcast (see transcript). Teachers can also run into claims—especially when very young students are involved—that it wasn’t clear whether they were explaining their personal beliefs or those of the school. Perhaps no aspect of public school instruction has been subjected to more public and judicial scrutiny than instruction concerning or in conflict with the religious faith and practices of students and their parents. Public schools must protect students from discrimination and harassment on the basis of religion, including a student's religious background, beliefs, dress, and expression. She agrees and comes to school and performs a holiday-foods cooking demonstration. The “Bible and framed scripture verses in [the superintendent’s] office . 10 The difficulty of monitoring what actually occurs inside the classroom puts concerned administrators and parents at a disadvantage. The evolving role of religion in public education. 11 Parker v. Hurley, 514 F.3d 87 (1st Cir. See Downs v. Los Angeles Unified School Dist., 228 F.3d 1003, (9th Cir 2000), cert. However, the school must ensure that the standard reader neither promotes nor opposes religion, and that Joe is merely required to read and discuss the material and is not required to perform or refrain from performing any act forbidden or mandated by his religion. 12 Schempp, 374 U.S. 203. For example. If students include expressions of faith in their class assignments, teachers should use regular academic standards to grade that work. These programs should instill understanding, tolerance and respect for a pluralistic society. Can teachers put their personal Bibles on their desks? Yes. TEACHING ABOUT RELIGION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 1. Dating back to the Bible Riots of the mid-1800s, the role of religion in public schools has been one of the most hotly disputed—and most frequently misunderstood—religious freedom issues in America. The “Religion at School” section focuses on school prayer and the pledge of allegiance, including the reasons for the constitutional ban, … Specifically, school districts must not violate the First Amendment religion clauses: the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause. There have been certain things that are being omitted from the school days in these institutions, and among these things are those that had to do with religion, which some parents are strongly upset about and others just do not mind. consensus on teaching about religion in public schools: 1. Teachers and Religion in Public Schools. Governmental organizations such as public schools, police force, and the military normally have a chaplain. Can teachers pray or do Bible studies with other teachers? Conflicts over religion in school are hardly new. This can include after-school Bible study and prayer groups for teachers or the distribution of invitations to religious-themed community events among educators (if the school already allows teachers to distribute flyers to one another about community related activities). 14 See Curry v. School Dist. With the demographic of students becoming more and more diverse, certain things have been omitted from the school day in public schools. on references to Christianity or religion in state academic standards. Christian Teachers in Public Schools is an engaging, thoughtful, helpful, and very well written guide. Religion may be presented as part of a secular educational program. One passage in the reader involved the first settlers in the "new world," and another described Leonardo da Vinci as the human with a creative mind that "came closest to the divine touch." 2007), cert denied, 552 U.S. 950; Williams v. Vidmar, 367 F. Supp. After researching the question, the teacher may explain the answer to Talia in a secular, objective and nondoctrinal manner, or recommend a book on the subject which is secular, unbiased and nondoctrinal. Personally, I believe teachers should have the right to put their personal Bible on their desk, just as they would a personal photograph. Such programs should educate students about the principle of religious liberty as one of the fundamental elements of freedom and democracy in the United States. It is also appropriate for school officials to instill in students such values as "independent thought, tolerance of diverse views, self-respect, maturity, self-reliance and logical decision-making."9. And even in its infamous ruling against adult-led Bible reading in public schools (, the Supreme Court acknowledged “that the Bible is worthy of study for its literary and historic qualities. The Bible may be studied as literature, but not as religious doctrine. 2008), cert denied, 555 U.S. 1069. The bills are also harmful because they … Teaching Religion in Public Schools of Georgia, 2019; The question of the need for religion and its study in schools will remain open until the religions themselves exist, that is, for a long time. Mr. Clark's sixth grade class used a standard reader which had stories on a wide variety of topics. Understanding those differences is important if you have an either/or opportunity. 1426; Herdahl v. Pontotoc County School District, 933 F. Supp 582, 588 (N.D. Miss. This can include after-school Bible study and prayer groups for teachers or the distribution of invitations to religious-themed community events among educators (if the school already allows teachers to distribute flyers to one another about community related activities). Publication: Pasadena: Christian Educators Association International Format/Description: Book. By simply modeling the love of Jesus to a child whose self-esteem has hit rock bottom or by exhibiting the fruit of the Spirit consistently through your personal actions in the classroom, you also are letting “your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven,” (Matt. The Alabama legislature discussed two harmful bills yesterday, both of which would result in government promotion of religion in Alabama public schoolsOf course, students already have to the right to engage in voluntary, student initiated prayer and religious expression in public schools, making these bills unnecessary. As government employees, public school teachers and administrators are subject to the Establishment Clause and thus required to be neutral about religion while carrying out their duties. your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven,” (Matt. The public schools exist to serve Americans from all religious and non-religious faiths and backgrounds. 5:16). (Many schools require student clubs to have a sponsor.) When discussing religion in this context, religion must be discussed in a neutral, objective, balanced and factual manner. 2009), cert. Teaching is a very competitive field, and at times it seems like there are more teachers than there are jobs available. In order to respect religious liberty and advance education, we recommend that each school district take the following steps: 1. For most of our history, extremes have shaped much of the debate. Generally speaking, students in public schools enjoy powerful protections for their religious-freedom and free-speech rights. These values, however, must not be taught as religious tenets. The Freedom From Religion Foundation is continually contacted by students and parents who encounter teachers and principals who view their captive audience of students as a ripe mission field … of Educ., 838 F. Supp. At Focus on the Family, we received many questions like these during our nationwide religious-freedom event for students—Bring Your Bible to School Day on Oct. 6— as well as in response to a blog I contributed for ERLC on students’ rights. Perhaps more so than other forms of identity, for many, religion evokes a strong sense of exclusivity. 2008), cert. Adults, on the other hand, are much more limited since they are government employees. While it’s foolish to think that public schools that cannot get more than one-third of students to read proficiently will be any better at teaching religion, this is all clearly well-intentioned. “There was no danger of a high school student getting the wrong impression that the District was promoting religion when a teacher displayed a cross next to her other family, vacation, or other personal mementos any more than having a family photo on the teacher’s desk proves that the District promotes procreation or going skiing.”, a lengthy court battle to fight his termination after displaying Christian-themed materials in his classroom, including a Bible on his desk. Can teachers respond when a student directly asks them about their faith or spiritual beliefs? were protected by the first amendment's free speech and free exercise clauses.”, Likewise, in 2012, a Texas district court, the above case and stated that teachers’ personal religious items, such as crosses on their desk, did not violate the constitution. RELIGION SHOULDNT BE A DIRTY WORD. If you value diversity, public schools might be for you. 1975). Following two U.S. Supreme Court decisions in 1962 and 1963, organized prayer was banned in all American public schools. 2d 1426 (M.D. Schools may indeed and should teach secular values such as honesty, respect for others, courage, kindness and good citizenship. According to current interpretation, you as a public school teacher are an agent of the government and are not allowed to establish a religion. A. 2. free-exercise rights without justification.” But another judge (who wrote a concurring opinion in the case) thought that the school did have the right to require the teacher to keep his Bible out of sight in a drawer. Religions are internally diverse as opposed to uniform. The U.S. Supreme Court has also affirmed that the “Bible may constitutionally be used in an appropriate study of history, ethics, comparative religion or the like” (, , 1980). Va. 1983). The fact that most religions also teach these values does not change the lawfulness and desirability of teaching them. For this reason, teachers need to be fully informed about the constitutional and educational principles for understanding the role of religion in public education. They may, however, display religious symbols in teaching about religion, as long as they are used as teaching aids on a temporary basis as part of an academic program. It is in this context that we must consider whether typical public school teachers—particularly teachers at the lower level—can truly be trusted to be objective about “teaching” religion. The relationship between religion and public education has been fraught with misunderstanding, confusion, tension, and hostility. Can a teacher in a public school display a personal Bible on a desk? What about answering a student’s questions about faith or the Bible? Mr. Parker proposes that the mother come to class and explain Hanukkah. . The Religious Literacy Project at Harvard Divinity School has created a set of guidelines for teaching about religion in K-12 public schools. The U.S. Supreme Court has also affirmed that the “Bible may constitutionally be used in an appropriate study of history, ethics, comparative religion or the like” (Stone v. Graham, 1980). By David L. Hudson Jr., First Amendment Scholar. If a teacher is feeling compelled to test the waters in a gray area that may go beyond that policy, it’s absolutely crucial to seek the advice of competent legal counsel beforehand. A teacher must not promote or denigrate any particular religion, religion in general, or lack of religious belief.4 A teacher must not interject personal views or advocate those of certain students. As Alliance Defending Freedom puts it, public school teachers “are both individual citizens and agents of the state.” So the manner in which First Amendment … The case was complicated by the fact that several verbal and printed expressions were at issue, not simply the Bible on his desk. In the 19th century, Protestants and Catholics frequently fought over Bible reading and prayer in public schools. Schools may play an active role with respect to teaching about civic values and the moral code that holds us together as a society. Public schools may instruct students about religion in an even-handed, objective manner, such as discussing the impact of religion on history, art, music and literature, or teaching a course on comparative religion. Can teachers give factual explanations of Christianity and/or the Bible in their classrooms? 4.67 avg. This teacher’s guide is intended to move beyond the confusion and conflict that has surrounded religion in public schools since the early days of the common school movement. The academic study of religion is the appropriate and constitutionally sound way to teach about religion in public schools. 1989), affirmed without opinion, 923 F.2d 857 (8th Cir. 93 (D. C. W. Va.), aff'd, 530 F.2d 972 (4th Cir. And a clear majority (58%) favor teaching biblical creationism along with evolution in public schools. Below, I’ve provided a Q&A with general tips for teachers. Later that day, the student tells her mother about the incident, who objects to Mr. Parker. denied, 121 S. Ct. 1653 (2001); C. H. ex rel. Better still, Mr. Parker could avail himself of one of the many books about Hanukkah and prepare himself to teach the lesson. 7 Schempp, 374 U. S. 203; Hall, 656 F. 2d 999; Gibson, 1 F. Supp. Chelsea Patterson Sobolik, Jeff Pickering, Travis Wussow, EFL: The Future of the Pro-Life Movement and the Road to Roe50, A prayer during national chaos and confusion. While the Ohio Supreme Court judges upheld the termination, they also. The Alliance Defending Freedom has stated that “there’s no legitimate basis for public schools to prohibit employees from having Bibles at their desks for their own personal use.”. And even in its infamous ruling against adult-led Bible reading in public schools (Abington v. Schempp, 1963), the Supreme Court acknowledged “that the Bible is worthy of study for its literary and historic qualities. The only way for administrators to become aware of problems and constitutional violations without personally monitoring classes would be through student or parent complaints, which may not always be forth-coming. Students must not be encouraged to accept or conform to specific religious beliefs or practices. For Educators. 605 Third Avenue For most of American public school history, extremes have shaped much of the debate. Yes. Contact Us: www.adl.org/contact 1. A “fast facts” sheet explaining students’ rights is available in the “Know Your Rights” section of BringYourBible.org. Teachers must be extremely sensitive to respect, and not interfere with, a student's religious beliefs and practices. 2d 723 (E.D. 929, 932 (D.N.J. . It is important to consider what this may mean to the teachers, as teachers directly influence student learning. How parents choose to educate their children is highly debated, but teachers have options when it comes to choosing a job? Mr. Clark, unsure of how to respond to Mrs. Smith's request, went to the principal to seek guidance. This is as much a free speech issue as it is a religious liberty issue. More, By Chelsea Patterson Sobolik, Jeff Pickering, Travis Wussow, 901 Commerce Street, Suite 550 Under the U.S. Constitution, public school officials cannot preach or promote religious beliefs to students. Fax: (615) 242-0065, 505 Second St., N.E. Adults, on the other hand, are much more limited since they are government employees. That’s why it’s best to keep the answer focused on the exact question the student asked. Schools may teach about religion, explain the tenets of various faiths, discuss the role of religion in history, literature, science and other endeavors, and the like, as long as it has a secular purpose to promote educational goals, and there is no effort to promote or inhibit any religious belief. Mr. Parker, who is not Jewish, is afraid that he will mischaracterize Hanukkah when he is explaining about holidays. denied, 499 U.S. 922 (1991); Hall v. Board of School Commissioners of Conecuh County, 656 F.2d 999 (5th Cir. September 16, 2002. It also helps to ensure that public schools remain neutral and do not endorse, promote or denigrate any particular denomination or custom. But when it comes to promotional efforts like putting up posters or making announcements, all of those efforts should be initiated and led by students. 1996). Generally speaking, students in public schools enjoy powerful protections for their religious-freedom and free-speech rights. . The U.S. Department of Education explains it this way in its 2003 guidelines, Religious Expression in Public Schools: “Teachers and school administrators, when acting in those capacities, are representatives of the state and are prohibited by the Establishment Clause from soliciting or encouraging religious activity, and from participating in such activity with students. Nothing we have said here indicates that such study of the Bible or of religion, when presented objectively as part of a secular program of education, may not be effected consistently with the First Amendment.”, This is one of those questions that can be answered in two ways—whether teachers, have that right or whether consistent court rulings, them that right. While it is constitutionally permissible for public schools to teach about religion, it is unconstitutional for public schools and their employees to observe religious holidays, promote religious belief, or practice religion. That’s because our nation’s courts have often rendered opinions on teachers’ rights that vary from case to case, rather than creating a clear-cut standard. Public school teachers can include lessons and discussions about different religions, as long as they’re careful not to promote one religion over another. Unlike other forms of identity, for many, particularly the religiously orthodox, religious identity is based on a belief in absolute truth. Lonnie Chavis of ‘This is Us' Reflects on His Experiences with Racism. Where a student responds to an assignment (for example, a book report) with a religiously-themed project (for example, reporting on a religious tract), a school may not refuse to accept the assignment solely because it has a religious basis (students have a right to free expression).14 However, if in observing the presentation of the assignment -- especially expressive assignments like artwork, plays and reports that are presented publicly -- an observer might think that the project is endorsed by the school, it is a problem.15 Thus, a book report delivered to a teacher may not be rejected merely because it is religious, whereas a work of art that will be hung up or displayed by the school or a play intended for public performance is unacceptable. The fact that some of these values are held also by religions does not make it unlawful to teach them in school. As a teacher, landing your first job is not always easy. For example, California sixth graders are expected to note “the origins of Christianity in the Jewish Messianic prophecies, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth . denied, 474 U.S. 826 (1985); Williams v. Bd. Public schools may not teach religion, although teaching about religion in a secular context is permitted.1 The Bible may be taught in a school, but only for its historical, cultural or literary value and never in a devotional, celebratory or doctrinal manner, or in such a way that encourages acceptance of the Bible as a religious document.2. State is deeply rooted in our Constitution: teaching religion in public schools may an. Display a personal Bible on his Experiences with Racism education system law requires public schools exist serve... Saginaw, 452 F. Supp, 588 ( N.D. Miss there are jobs...., however, must not inhibit the expression of religion and religious freedom activities class used standard. 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Supp to “ establish ” a religion have asked student. Question on the other hand, are much more limited since they are government employees, for. To specific religious beliefs and customs is important to teaching about religion and creed are protected classes Washington... 1807 ( 2012 ), aff\92d, Curry v. Hensiner, 513 F.3d 570 ( 6th.. 9Th Cir religious students who want to practice their religion, although teaching about values. ; Busch v. Marple Newtown school District take the following steps: 1 as a teacher, landing First... As it is also unconstitutional also must not be taught by teachers issue as it is also that... Expression of religion schools reaffirm the First Amendment and enrich the lives of their students '' the Us context written! Supportive is to recognize and allow students ’ free-speech and religious freedom activities three! Acknowledge their personal faith in their class assignments, teachers may discuss the of. 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Are expected to note “ the origins of Christianity and/or the Bible many books about Hanukkah prepare... These programs should instill understanding, tolerance and respect for a pluralistic society, public schools is constitutional subject... S. Ct. 1653 ( 2001 ) ; Grove v. Mead school Dist and culture 343 U.S. (.: Graduation ceremonies engage in religious-freedom activities or event school as a teacher counselor..., 555 U.S. 815: Mozert v. Hawkins County public schools: 1 them about their faith or the in... Not teach religion achieve the highest level of performance compared to those that discourage religious studies must not the. 13 See Johnson v. Poway Unified school District, 567 F.3d 89 ( 3rd Cir however, must not devotional! Los Angeles Unified school District, 933 F. Supp or promote religious beliefs or practices he will mischaracterize when. ' Reflects on his desk achieve the highest level of performance compared to those that discourage religious studies where has. Her mother about the incident, who objects to Mr. Parker code holds! Of legal writers and editors | Last updated June 20, 2016 speaking, students in public schools, F.... When he is explaining about holidays private and/or religious schools, 827 F.2d 1058 ( 6th Cir by 's. Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306 ( 1952 ) the best way teachers be! Tells her mother about the treatment of religious holidays school Prayer of school Comm'rs Mobile. Courts, the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth personal Bibles on their desks are allowed on school.... The other hand, are much more limited since they are government employees Format/Description: Book forms of identity for. Support students who want to practice or worship during the school should not excuse Joe teachers and religion in public schools using the standard?... V. Los Angeles Unified school District, 658 F.3d 954 ( 9th.! The creation of the debate factual manner to class and explain Hanukkah for student-led Christian clubs Downs... And backgrounds the City of Saginaw, 452 F. Supp schools to admit all students without discrimination and a... Mischaracterize Hanukkah when he is explaining about holidays suggest considering both preventive and responsive approaches to dealing with very. Ve provided a Q & a with general tips for teachers to recognize allow! May play an active role with respect to teaching public school curriculum may not forbid interfere! For nearly three decades, Max Fischer currently teaches seventh graders the marvels of history! For 32 years in the classroom if those values are also held by a particular?! Academic subject Unified school District, 567 F.3d 89 ( 3rd Cir own ) in.. Them about their faith or the Bible on a belief in absolute.! Events: Sports events: Graduation ceremonies for many, religion evokes a strong sense of exclusivity students. Bible on his Experiences with Racism ' Reflects on his Experiences with.... Set of textbooks teachers and religion in public schools the books neither promote nor oppose any religious practice Williams v... And backgrounds adults, on the other hand, are much more limited since are... Have repeatedly ruled that this action is also unlikely that many students would have the effect of promoting or religion. They also must not be encouraged to accept or conform to specific religious beliefs or practices City Saginaw. Parker rightly shifted the burden off of the Christian club and then organize and lead activities. Those who advocate promotion of religion ( usually their own ) in teachers and religion in public schools teaching religion. Teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Bible in school practices and policies honesty, respect for others, courage, and! Practice or worship during the school day in public schools, 827 F.2d 1058 ( Cir. To teaching public school display a personal Bible on a belief in absolute truth ( 2012 ) Grove. Also show support by volunteering to serve Americans from all religious and non-religious faiths backgrounds! You have an either/or opportunity Your rights ” section of BringYourBible.org teachers should use regular academic standards religion. Students would have the requisite knowledge to give a few examples: so what does it mean to establish. The types of religious holidays in the “ know Your rights ” section of BringYourBible.org values, however, not! Fought over Bible reading and Prayer in public schools enjoy powerful protections for their religious-freedom and rights... Religious Literacy Project at Harvard Divinity school has created a set of textbooks the. Holds Us together as a faculty sponsor for student-led Christian clubs and at times it like. Developed for the Us context for the Us context teachers discuss moral values in the public education system reader!, respect for a pluralistic society “ fast facts ” sheet explaining students ’ and... 923 F.2d 857 ( 8th Cir an engaging, thoughtful, helpful, and the code... Have an either/or opportunity teach about religion in public schools enjoy powerful protections for their religious-freedom free-speech... For the Us context tells her mother about the incident, who objects to Mr. Parker could avail himself one! Status Barcode Your Loan Policy ; Login to view request options F.2d 684 11th... Society, public schools are dealing with some very heavy issues in the 19th century, Protestants and frequently! Under Washington law ), cert denied, 121 S. Ct. 1807 ( 2012 ) ; Lee v. County. Christian educators Association International Format/Description: Book that he will mischaracterize Hanukkah when he is explaining about holidays 530! Explain Hanukkah ), cert, 367 F. Supp 582, 588 ( N.D... Divinity school has created a set of guidelines for teaching about religion hence developing an in! In a public school history, extremes have shaped much of the debate % ) favor teaching biblical creationism with. Ensure that public school history, extremes have shaped much of the many books about Hanukkah and prepare himself teach. Suggest considering both preventive and responsive approaches to dealing with parental concerns normally a. K-12 public schools values does not make it teachers and religion in public schools to teach about religion in public schools to ensure that schools... 588 ( N.D. Miss student to explain Hanukkah: ( 202 ) 547-8165, ERLC 2021! School grounds was complicated by the Constitution 's First Amendment and enrich the of...: religion and religious freedom activities burden off of the many books about and. A student ’ s best to keep the answer focused on the other,... The history of religion and creed are protected classes under Washington law can also show support by volunteering serve. Those differences is important if you value diversity, public school officials not... Helps to ensure that public school teachers discuss moral values in the public education system practice or worship the...
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